Found Sounds: Music from the mundane


‘Hearing’ Music:

Whenever I am on a train, I find myself hypnotised by the sound of the wheels on the track and the rhythmic ‘rattle’ that this produces in the carriage. And at other times, I spend time on tech review websites because their reviews matter a lot to me since I’m a strict audiophile. Similarly, when at a queuing to pay at the supermarket, I love to stand and listen to the sound of the ‘beeps’ produced when items are scanned at the different checkouts, the differences in pitch (probably due to the relative distances) and the sometimes ‘rhythmic’ effect of the beeps occurring at random intervals. When I’m in a traffic jam in a car, I can amuse myself for long periods of time by simply listening to the ‘music’ created by the interaction of the indicator’s clicking sound and the swoosh of the windscreen wipers, slowly moving in and out of phase with each other. When using a photocopier it is not uncommon to see me nodding my head, in time with the mechanistic ‘groove’ of the machine, as if I was listening to music on headphones.

When I tell people about this, or when people observe me absent-mindedly humming as I invent bass lines that compliment the metronomic ‘tick-tock’ of the car indicator, or tapping additional layers of rhythmic patterns over the incessant ‘clickity-clack’ of the train, some people think I’m mad, some think I’m just a muso-geek and others seem to understand and even recognise this behaviour in themselves. Regardless of what other people may think, I find that I derive genuine and meaningful musical experiences from sounds that other people may regard as noise, or indeed, that they may subconsciously ‘block out’. This does not surprise me, I am fully aware of the subjectivity of musical experience and I’ve also attended the events at the United Center many times, but it does intrigue me. Consequently, in recent years, I have started to use this idea in my teaching and, most recently, in the context of a 1st year undergraduate course I teach in Popular Music Composition at Edinburgh Napier University.

‘Collecting’ Sounds:

In week 2 of my composition course (after the initial introductory lecture) I ask my students to attend class with some sort of hand-held recording device. After a preparatory discussion about sampling and related issues, we head out into the campus (and beyond) in search of sounds that we feel are ‘interesting’ and that are/could be considered ‘musical’. The term ‘musical’ is deliberately used as a problematic and ambiguous word as the intention is for the students to decide what this word means, and why. I want my students to start to listen to sounds in their environment analytically, to think about the ways in which sound is perceived, and to consider the ways in which ‘music’ can be found (or drawn from) unexpected sources.

Use of samples is clearly not a new – for many composers of popular music (particularly for younger students), this is one of the first steps in writing/producing a piece of music. For example, a drum sample is loaded into a digital audio workstation (DAW) and other layers are added on top until the track is complete. The exercise that I described above is different, however, as it is not about using pre-existing samples – it is about creating audio files that can be used, manipulated, and sculpted to create musical source material. Again, this is not a new idea and it is one that has been a key aspect of many types of electronic music for decades. That said, without exception, my students consider this approach to be entirely novel and, in some cases, the idea of starting a compositional process without even touching an instrument or DAW is even met with scepticism.

Implications for ‘Popular Music Composers’:

Popular music is an ‘aural art’ (Warner 2003: 8) that comes into being through the recording and manipulation of audio – popular musicians use production technology (software and hardware) as means to work directly with sound and to create sonic artefacts (Moir and Medbøe, in press). In this sense then, recorded sounds are the building blocks of many types of popular music. Regardless of whether we consider recordings of traditional instruments or samples of ‘found sounds’, for example, when a track is created we engage with it aurally. In my opinion, this means it is of paramount importance for popular music composers to think carefully and creatively about timbre and sound creation, just as much as (if not more) harmony and melody etc.

First year popular music students often tell me that their default approach is to use a DAW (Logic or Ableton Live, primarily) and to begin with instrument presets or samples and compose a track using these pre-existing components. Additional layers of audio, such as vocals or live instruments, may be added but the starting point is often one that is essentially curtailed by the parameters of software presets, workflows, or technical ability. This, in turn, can lead to students reverting to habitual processes or to genre stereotypes. I do not mean to suggest that my ‘found sounds’ exercise will necessarily yield music that defies genre classification or idiomatic norms – nor should it. What this exercise does is to encourage students to break habits, listen at a deeper level, and consider their music in a way that goes beyond the melodic/harmonic/rhythmic content that is the typical priority and preoccupation of young students in this area. By considering their music from this sonic perspective, it is hoped (and is usually the case) that the students will uncover new and interesting perspectives on composition and production that they may not have arrived at by conventional or habitual practices.


Moir, Z. and Medbøe, H. (In press). Reframing popular music composition as performance-centered practice, Journal of Music, Technology and Education (Special Issue, Edited by Gareth Dylan Smith and Bryan Powell)

Warner, T. (2003) Pop Music, Technology and Creativity: Trevor Horn and the
digital revolution, Ashgate, United Kingdom.

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Dr Zack Moir is an Associate Professor of Music at Edinburgh Napier University. He has a strong research interest in popular music pedagogy, music in higher education, musical improvisation and popular music composition. Zack is also an active musician and composer performing in ensembles and as a soloist, internationally. Zack is one of the editors of the 'Routledge Research Companion to Popular Music Education', and the 'Bloomsbury Handbook of Popular Music Education: Perspectives and Practices'.

7 thoughts on “Found Sounds: Music from the mundane”

  1. Hi Zach,

    Based on this article, I recommend that you go watch the movie LOVE & MERCY, which is about parts of Brian Wilson , of the Beach Boys. I think you will really enjoy the scenes in the music studios, how he worked with excellent, unknown musicians and lots of mundane sounds and creativity on some really great out of the box music.



  2. I wish I could study with you. You always seem to do nice things with your students…and care a lot about them too. Maybe I can come to Edinburgh for a course? ?

  3. I agree with the last person who posted.
    Your students might enjoy a weird novel by China Mieville called King Rat. One of the main characters makes music without instruments, using bits and pieces, albeit not ‘found’ ones.
    You mention getting away from the traditional elements such as harmony and rhythm, and I can see why. But for me this leads into other issues, at least in the context of a hazy idea I have that music and sound can function broadly as signifiers in some cross-modal cultural sense. Put simply, sounds can be evocative.
    So when I imagined myself walking round with a hand held recorder sweeping up the dust of the noises I listen to or notice in the environment, I came up with corny sounds like the seagulls, the blackbirds on the telephone cables singing to each other, the trains speeding along the line between here and the sea, the fortnightly rumble of wheelie bins. And each of these sounds seems to me to come with its own set of cultural baggage.
    Maybe I need to dig deeper to get past this .

    1. Yes, that’s a good point, Count! If you were to just assemble a piece of music using these sounds then they would definitely sound corny. However, looking for the musical in these examples of mundane sounds means you have to try to detach them from the cultural baggage. Maybe micro sampling the first 50ms of the seagull sound could be a cool synth patch or looping a chunk of the blackbirds could provide some interesting textural sounds to add to a mix. The wheelie bin lids closing make great ‘snare’ sounds too.

      Try it – you may just get hooked.

  4. Every summer finds me glued to the tennis at Wimbledon, where, this year, Johanna Konta has achieved something or other that I won’t bore you with.
    The reason for this post is that I noticed that the grunts both women players made when, or just after, striking the ball, seemed to hit the same pitch, and that when coupled with the sounds of the racket hitting the ball in some rallies the effect was quite musical.
    As the guitar sits next to me on the sofa, I could pick it up and check for the pitch, and Konta was definitely “singing” the note F for quite a while. It later went up to F#.
    I’ve tried to find a link, but none of the videos have the sound quality that the live broadcast did, so you cannot hear just how musical the grunting was.
    I was reminded of this blog article and so thought I would post my comment and share my example of ‘found music’.

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